Research explanation of e-Mobility as a Service
Emergence of mobility concepts
Before the digital revolution and user-centric approach, the concept of accessible, new forms of transportation was the future vision of what life could be like. With the rapid growth of technology, mobile devices, enhanced battery capacities, wide Internet connection, investments in new unexplored forms of service delivery, and quick social adaptation in the last ten years we have witnessed a great transformation.
Raising enthusiasm boosted consumption and proved that rapid adaptation is possible and widely accepted. New economic models have begun to take into account sharing concepts and value the tangible benefits of such solutions. In a sharing economy, not used assets such as parked cars and extra bedrooms can be rented out. We transferred from owning to renting. And this concept widely approved first by Uber users moved to other transport areas offering new possibilities. In the Alternative Journal article, ‘Ours is Better than Yours’ , Ray Tumulty (2014) the sharing economy is described as a clearly urban phenomenon. To achieve economies of scale for shared economy services satisfactory population density is required. Moreover, these services are seen as an extra option, not a replacement for traditional sectors. Ridesharing is used along with public transportation in cities.
With the growing success of rented items and services, new forms of transportation options come to the market. The mobility concept grew to form a comprehensive ecosystem offering numerous moving variants, such as city bikes, electric scooters, car rides, ticket purchasing options, city traffic monitoring, planning the most convenient route, parking options, integrated payments, and available charging options for ‘e’ users. All available in real-time from the mobile app on one’s phone. This progress developed the term Mobility as a service , which covers a wide range of mobility services available on the market, and its integral part becomes a shared economy providing extra value for participants.
On a high-level, the MaaS ecosystem includes transport infrastructure, transportation services, transport information, and payment services. Within the ecosystem, the common objective is the delivery of a seamless mobility experience and transportation network improvement by utilizing the benefits of each service - public and private. Besides, other participants such as local authorities or data administration companies can collaborate to smooth the operation of the services and improve their profitability.
MaaS as a definition is described as
One of the MaaS ecosystem examples was presented by the Siemens Mobility Division in 2016 for Tampere City, Finland. The ecosystem is build of 4 main elements: service providers; a business-to-business (B2B) platform; mobility retailers; and the users. The intention of the project was to unite the existing and upcoming transport services with the operations of the local paratransit services.
A similar approach on a high level was presented by König project ‘Mobility As A Service for Linking Europe’. Four different levels define the public and regulatory level, the transport and logistics service providers level, the mobility service level, and the end-user level. On the basis of similar concepts and definitions, a framework for Mobility as a service was developed.
From a business perspective, MaaS is described by Kamargianni and Matyas in the paper ‘The Business Ecosystem of Mobility-as-a-Service’(2017) as ‘the wider network of enterprises that influences how a dominant company, in this case, the MaaS provider, creates and capture value’.
To support theoretical premises on shared mobility, a survey conducted by McKinsey&Company (2017) provides some insight into the consumer’s opinion on ride-hailing and car-sharing. Respondents were asked how their usage of ride-hailing and car-sharing services will change within the next two years. In both cases, over 60% responded that it will increase or increase significantly. Shared mobility is mostly favored in urban areas, but seems to be less attractive for running errands or multi-stop shopping trips.
What is ‘e’ all about?
We are an integral part of the next global transformation, where alternative fuels and green energy takes charge. The concept explained above has been extended with ‘e’ - a possibility to travel in an eco-friendly way, where ‘e’ stands for electric solutions.
Electric Mobility as a service combines Mobility as a Service (MaaS), Electric Mobility Systems (EMS), and Shared Electric Mobility Services (SEMS) . As a concept eMaaS operates upon MaaS, where the last one became one of the complementary components. With that defined, all MaaS participants become, as a consequence, eMaaS attendees. Providing they offer electric mobility solutions.
Electric Mobility System (EMS) covers technologies (batteries, charging technologies, drivetrains, and EVs), infrastructure (physical and organizational of charging stations, electricity grid, information and communication technology), and users (manufacturers, suppliers, end-users, service providers, governments, and agents).
Shared Electric Mobility Services’ (SEMS) applies to a new economy implementation, where instead of ownership there is an on-a-need basis share connected by the technology with users and providers. SEMS replies to the environmental, social, financial, and transportation-related benefits that had already been correlated to emobility and shared mobility practice connecting both. Five business approaches are proposed:
- Membership-based (e.g. e-bike sharing, e-car sharing, e-ridesharing, e-ride hailing, e-scooter sharing, e-bus sharing),
- Peer-to-Peer(e.g. e-car sharing, e-bike sharing, e-scooter sharing),
- Non-membership-based (e.g. e-car rental, elimousine rental),
- For-hire (e.g. e-car/bike/scooter sharing, e-ridesharing e-carpooling),
- Mass transit systems (e.g. e-Public Transport, airport autonomous shuttles).
As a part of a wider concept, combined with two other components MaaS & EMS, together provides multiple eco-friendly transportation possibilities. Successful implementation of such a concept requires multi-level support, well-designed system architecture, and an extensive network in public structures.
The user-centric approach will always be foreground. It applies to the development of the widely recognized concept of e-mobility as a service. From accessible payment methods for single ticket purchasing, subscriptions, to well-developed charging networks and various means of transport access. At each stage of the proposition should be declared value.
We are still in the early stages of what could be called e-Mobility as a service. Most customer journeys are under development, and achieving overall flow is still in its infancy. There is a lot of research to be done, but there is room for the general necessary approaches. Each of the participants, in order to achieve success and remain successful in this growing market, should remember the needs and behavior of the end-customers - have in mind that ½ users are likely to bail on service or purchase because of a single bad experience.
One of the success factors will be easy, integrated payments, giving preferable plan or demand models.
Plan option: Participants pay a monthly fee befitted to their transportation needs. Such plans can be split into an urban commuter, family, business, and casual. They include all public transport options as well as taxi, rideshare, carshare, etc, to cover individual needs.
Pay on-demand alternative: Paid as traveled with the difference that the payment is for the whole trip in one go independent of transport means. So if in need to take the train, bus, and then taxi on one trip, it’s all included in one, joint payment, executed automatically via smartphone.
Technology changed the way people consume goods and services. With handy devices, ¾ of consumers expect the service within five minutes from the initial contact. The same share wants ‘the simple experience’. From all players, customers expect immediate action, personalization, and convenience. This requires a broader view focusing on journeys, not only touchpoints, which will become a framework for further expansion.
When it comes to user preferences, whether it applies to simple app development or complex system design, it’s been always about developing a complete value proposition that answers the needs of the user and delivers a convenient solution. With a unique experience, trust, and the right technology that supports EV drivers, e-mobility participants can succeed.
E-mobility revolution driven by technology
The entire development of various e-mobility solutions is powered by rapid smartphone penetration. Since the handy device gives us access to countless possibilities, the way people consume goods and services changed. As a matter of fact, smartphones enable and will be a core factor for rapid growth in eMaaS concepts and Smart City solutions. Among the technologies being developed electric cars, route optimization resolutions, car-to-car communication will change the way we commute itself.
In search of efficiency, communication will become a smart blend of technology, infrastructure, and users. Electromobility and autonomous driving development are considered to be the catalyst for changes taking place in urban consumption. E-mobility secures eco-friendly and efficient vehicles on the roads. E-driving became globally a high priority. Climate change, oil shortage (Statistical Review of World Energy 2017 estimates that the world’s currently known oil reserves will last +/- 50 years given current levels of consumption), and air pollution brought forward the development of green solutions. As long as the power is received from renewable sources e-cars and hybrids represent the most efficient and environmentally friendly ways of driving.
Core components of business and technology are connectivity solutions, integrating components, user interface, infrastructure development, battery technology, driving software and product design, high accuracy maps, secure solutions, data storage and processing, between-vehicle communication. Well-developed services build upon a user-centric approach, providing integrated, smart, handy assistance.
How users feel about sharing their data?
According to a survey conducted by Otonomo  among the citizens of European countries, most car owners think that manufacturers collect their data for product improvement or development, advertising, segmentation driver types, and learning more about habits, reliability, usage, or preventative maintenance.
Consumers declare that they would love to have access to data generated by their cars. Three-quarters of survey respondents showed an interest in receiving data held by OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturer) more than twice a month and nearly 50% of respondents would love to receive data frequently (even up to once a day).
Additional information consumers would love to receive are car alerting about dangerous conditions ahead (72%), early necessary maintenance and repairs detection (59%), car knowing the traffic and suggesting an alternative route (59%), an app that allows deliveries to be made to your car’s trunk (51%), car suggesting nearby, available parking (48%) and software that allows having fuel delivered (46%). So, not only drivers do not mind gathering information but also would appreciate receiving feedback and insights.
Diving deeper into e-mobility concepts
Car sharing in Europe
One of the widely appreciated models by the 2 billion consumer segment is car sharing . Generation Y (born between 1977 and 1994) desires connectivity and convenience. Having numerous transportation options Millennials are more likely to choose on-demand services instead of ownership. New mobility service providers connect seamlessly drivers with passengers (carpooling, taxi) or passengers to cars (car-sharing).
The latter one, powered by technology and finest logistics, offers great value for one-way trips, as well as planned round-routes. Without bearing the cost and effort of car ownership Millennials can get a unique feeling of driving. The sharing economy provides favorite conditions with a blend of technology and service without exhausting the possibilities. Car sharing leads in big cities where scale effect is easy to achieve by, among other things, cost reduction and lifestyle changes. To confirm this, in 2019 Global Car Sharing market value was 2.5B USD (Global Growth Trends) and is expected to grow up to 9B USD globally in the next 6 years.
Car sharing quickly became outstanding among other mobility services thanks to a wide range of business models applied, offering different experiences and pricing systems. One of the success factors is the flexibility provided with usage areas and distances to be traveled. On the basis of a well-known car rental model, three concepts were developed: free-floating, stationary, and peer-to-peer car sharing. The latter business model, where individuals can offer their car rental to private users via a platform, successfully conquered the French market. P2P offers long-distance transportation mode for longer routes and became an alternative for short-term rental or carpooling.
Free-floating car sharing
Allows to pick up the vehicle and return anywhere within a certain area, operates mostly in the city centers, usually providing smaller cars, in cooperation with local authorities providing dedicated parking spaces. When it comes to car sharing in a free-floating model, many providers see the investment as a strategic step, as a new promotional channel, and direct access to customers’ insights.
Free-floating business model success factors are:
- location (high density to reach the scale),
- price (usually per minute),
- cooperation with local authorities or private sector (e.g. in Poland IKEA offered dedicated parking spaces for Traficar as a part of yet another transport service), and
- convenience (the majority of the fleet consists of city driving cars).
E.g. In France free-floating cars, according to a study by Les Échos newspaper, represent 26% of carsharing vehicles. Among these, 44% are electric. Free-floating electric car-sharing in Paris emerged in late 2018 with the following launches of Free2Move, Car2Go, and Zity. Over 1,400 electric vehicles were deployed across the French capital by these companies.
What is interesting, on the basis of free-floating, other urban transportations are offered, such as electric scooters, city bikes, e-bikes, and mopeds.
Stationary car sharing
The oldest model with the start and endpoint at the same station, dedicated to round routes. With different needs, the lack of flexibility is being replaced with a wide fleet variety. Stationary car providers usually operate in smaller cities and rural regions. What is interesting, they do not operate globally (with one exception Flinkster by Deutsche Bahn Rent). Success is linked to extensive local market knowledge and customers' needs understanding. They often rely on other providers' cooperation, creating broader networks offering free-floating alike experience on a long-distance driving.
Key success factors in this oldest, but nourished with fine technology, are:
- location in medium-sized cities and rural areas
- availability (often located by the airports or train stations)
- pricing based on hourly rates or distance
- wide fleet selection for various purposes
Some global players see the opportunity in free-floating, e.g. in 2011 as a joint venture of BMW and Sixt established DriveNow, other invest in stationary car sharing, e.g. Volkswagen by investing took over 60% of Greenwheels in 2013.
In February 2020, Daimler AG and BMW announced yet another car-sharing services partnership under a new brand, ‘ShareNow’ . By merging Car2Go and DriveNow, 'ShareNow’ became a market leader, being present in 20 European cities with a fleet of over 20 000 vehicles. ShareNow actually is a mix of both concepts mentioned - a combination of stationary car-sharing and free-floating. Various paths of car sharing are being tested, thanks to a broad range of possibilities offered by technology. In October 2020, Toyota launched its new car-sharing service to provide a wide range of mobility services for short-term use on the Japanese market. Based on these few examples we can only expect new services to be tested and developed. Combining traditional concepts with modern technologies may soon influence consumer behavior, look at certain aspects of e-mobility as well as create new businesses. Hence, the theoretical aspects of emobility presented earlier reflect the real changes.
Peer-to-peer car sharing
P2P seems to be a niche market, is the only concept where private individuals offer their own vehicles. The exchange takes place via a dedicated platform, offering insurance and telematic equipment to provide smooth access. The car must be returned the same day within the pick-up area and used for round trips. The pricing provides a great alternative to car rentals or stationary car sharing. A decentralized fleet offers a wide range of brands and models.
Being called a niche, drivy initially operated in the French market, quickly converted to getaround , and operates now in the UK, Germany, Austria, France, Spain, Belgium, and the USA. Undoubtedly, the P2P car-sharing success happened due to most favored factors among consumers, similar to Airbnb, unique value combined with technology resulting in a great alternative to other, more traditional services. A prime technology - the platform and telematics ease the use. Thanks to one of the shared economy principles, P2P car sharing offers a diverse, accessible network, quickly spreading to new markets, providing value to each participant. Moreover, the P2P concept getaround is empowered by well-designed insurance policies to cover lending concerns.
Car sharing benefits and concerns
The increasing traffic congestion in urban districts doubled with overloaded public transport facilities is boosting the car-sharing market revenue. The emergence of electric vehicles in public areas will be accelerating in order to reduce gas emissions. Attracted by extra benefits, such as incentives, new partnerships , parking spaces in exclusive, centered areas, providers will enhance the electric cars fleet.
Although the concept of car sharing is enthusiastically acclaimed this doesn’t mean that ‘ownership’ will go into a niche. Today’s consumer profile on the EV market is evolving from early adopters to mass adoption. According to a survey conducted by Accenture  in 2019 in China, Europe, and the US, respondents declared that they expect to own a car in the future. When asked if they would resign from possessing in favor of services, nearly 50% would consider giving up ownership in favor of integrated mobility services. What is more interesting in Europe, 55% of premium car owners and 41% of non-premium owners are more likely to switch.
One more factor may place a sharing idea further afield. A survey conducted in June 2020 by cars.com showed that 70% of respondents declared the coronavirus has led to a reduction in commuting, and 49% reported their commute has been greatly reduced or become nonexistent. 58% who previously commuted via a public vehicle - carpool, taxi, ride-share, or bus - 44% of them said they’ve had a reduced the need, and 15% reported having no need to commute. 38% stated they usually rely on a bus to commute to work, 42% declared they’re riding less and 15% said they aren’t riding the bus at all. More than 55% of respondents actively consider buying or leasing a car, and 7% actually acquired a vehicle due to the pandemic. What is more, the pandemic became a reason to consider buying a car for 20% of respondents. The decisions were strictly dictated by the concerns about public transportation and the sanitation of ride-sharing vehicles.
Electric Vehicle market is going mainstream
Although the term electromobility or e-mobility applies to all means of transport powered by electric energy such as e-bikes or pedelecs, electric motorbikes, e-buses, and e-trucks we focused on e-cars. Several factors contributed to rapid EV penetration in Europe. From governmental declaration to achieve zero-emission goals by 2050, research and development, a wide range of possibilities to scale up fast provided by technology to raising environmental awareness. In this paper, we provide all the necessary information but starting from the beginning. Among the available options for electric cars, we have:
- Hybrids (HEV) - Hybrid contains both an electric and combustion engine. The battery is charged via the engine while driving and stores the braking energy at the same time.
- Plug-in Hybrid (PHEV) - The battery stores the braking energy in plug-in hybrids. Plus the car can be charged via the grid.
- Range Extended Electric Vehicle (REEV) - is efficiently an all-electric vehicle, with all the motive power provided by an electric motor, but with a small internal combustion engine present to generate additional electric power. I.e. it might be viewed as a series hybrid with a much larger battery, namely, 10–20 kWh;
- Battery Electric Vehicle (EV or BEV) - The vehicle is fully powered by the battery charged via the grid.
Available charging options
Two-way charging technology. When EV is charged, AC (Alternating Current) from the grid is converted to DC (Direct Current) power. Possible to be implemented by the EV’s owner or charger’s converter. What is more, this technology allows the energy stored in batteries to powerhouse/external load (V2H) or send it back to the grid (V2G).
Nothing new here, but some may not know that EVs wireless charging is possible. The vehicle’s battery can be empowered wirelessly by parking the car on a spot with a charger on the ground. Just like wireless phone chargers. Although, the amount of exchanged energy in these wireless systems notably outpaces a wireless cell phone charger, seems like a great challenge for startups developing them. These innovations must be 100% safe, certified solutions. One of the examples of a park & charge solution is Canadian startup ELIX.
A fully charged car in 20-60 minutes is possible, although the ultimate goal is to fully charge a vehicle in less than 10 minutes. Just like gasoline at the petrol station. For example, GBatteries is working on advanced super-fast charging technology without the influence of battery life. The pioneers like Tesla, ABB, ChargePoint, EVbox, and other OEMs and networks offer fast-charging stations. Among other obstacles associated with handling the huge power demanded, if not done correctly, fast charging can lead to faster battery degradation.
Portable charging units
Similarly, just like power banks for mobile phones, startups are building portable charging systems for EVs. For example, SparkCharge offers stackable batteries that can deliver up to 60-75 miles per full stack and work together to deliver the exact amount of range needed.
Since the most comfortable ways of charging EV is still overnight, for those who don’t have a garage or access to any charging station nearby, British startup ZUMO offers a solution for those who own or want to own an EV but lack a driveway. They pick up the car, bring it to a charging station, and bring it back to the owner the following morning, fully charged and ready to go solving the issue of charging in big cities.
Dynamic wireless charging
With the technology that uses copper coils embedded under roads and connected to the electricity grid, along with receivers installed under vehicles the dynamic charging is being in deployment in Sweden for E-bus with a Super- Capacitor battery and a heavy Duty E-Truck with a Li-Ion battery. Yet another EV charging resolution proposed by Electreon. Similar projects also take place in Germany and Israel. Recently Italy joined the testing phase with a one-kilometer examination section of the A35 highway between Brescia and Milan. If the pilot becomes successful the entire 62-kilometer (both ways will be approx. 150 km) length of the A35 freeway will follow.
This allows to intelligently manage EV charging by connecting it to the grid. Smart charging is all about connecting charging points with users and operators. Each time an EV is plugged in, the charging station sends information (i.e. charging time, speed, etc.) via Wi-Fi or Bluetooth to i.e. a centralized cloud-based management platform. Smart charging can provide additional data such as information about the local grid’s capacity and how energy is currently being used at the charging site (house, office building, supermarket, etc.). The gathered data is being analyzed and visualized in real-time by the software behind the platform. With smart charging, charging operators can control and regulate energy usage easily and remotely through one platform, or mobile application. EV owners can benefit by using a mobile app to monitor and pay for their charging sessions from anywhere, any time. Smart charging offers power-sharing, dynamic power-sharing, and power boost. It also allows vehicle owners, businesses, and network operators to control how much energy EVs are taking from the grid and when. For example, Wallbox offers such a solution. A wall-mounted box can be installed in a private garage or a condominium or company parking lot. Wallbox is being recommended by several electric vehicle manufacturers, e.g. Renault.
Charging under the cables
With the most common charging option on the market comes three main types of EV charging: rapid, fast, and slow. These represent the power outputs, and hence charging speeds, available to charge an EV. Each charging device type has an associated set of connectors that are designed for low- or high-power use, and for either AC or DC charging.
Rapid or super-fast chargers enable to recharge an EV up to 80% in 20 min to 1 hour, depending on the battery capacity. With 50 kW DC charging is possible on one of two connector types using either the CHAdeMO or CCS charging standards, 43 kW AC charging on one connector - Type 2 standard, 100+ kW DC ultra-rapid charging is possible on one of two connector types: CCS or CHAdeMO. All rapid units have tethered cables.
The majority of fast chargers provide AC charging. A 7 kW charger will recharge a compatible EV with a 40 kWh battery in 4-6 hours, and a 22 kW charger in 1-2 hours. Fast chargers are often placed at car parks, supermarkets, or recreation centers, where you are likely to be parked for an hour or more. Fast chargers include: 7kW fast charging on one of three connector types, 22kW fast charging on one of three connector types, 11kW fast charging on Tesla Destination network. Units are either untethered or have tethered cables.
Fast charge is the most common public charge point standard, and most plug-in car owners will have a cable with a Type 2 connector charger-side.
Slow chargers are mostly used at home because overnight charging takes from 6 up to 12 hours. There are 3 kW – 6 kW slow charging units on one of four connector types either untethered or have tethered cables, meaning that a cable is required to connect the EV with the charge point.
We live in the user-centered era, cutting the edge charging network appears to be the next big challenge to quickly adapt and boost the e-mobility ecosystem. Among potential EVs consumers poorly developed charging network is listed as the main barrier when buying an electric car. Home charging leads the way but when it comes to convenient refueling at a petrol station experience we still need some improvements. When time becomes a major determinant, especially in large agglomerations and not everyone has access to night-time charging options local authorities in cooperation with solution providers must assure proper infrastructure, offering rapid, or fast charging options.
One of the biggest concerns when it comes to switching to an EV is the range a.k.a. battery capacity. Consumers claim that they would switch to BEV if only the range or charging options would be widely available. By 2030, battery electric vehicles are expected to reach an average driving range of 350-400 km corresponding to battery sizes of 70-80 kWh. So far on the market, we have five emerging battery technologies for electric vehicles:
Widely used in the majority of EVs, and seems that they will remain dominant. They perform quite well, have a high cyclability - the battery can be recharged multiple times while still maintaining efficiency. The downside is a low energy density - the volume of energy that can be stored in a unit. Manufacturers, like Tesla and Nissan, have invested massively in this technology, working on bigger capacity and safety of these batteries. Lion anodes demonstrate high energy density being lightweight at the same time.
Solid components provide many benefits: lack of electrolyte leaks or fires, extended lifetime, lowered need for cooling mechanisms, and the ability to function in an extended temperature range. Another competitive advantage for solid-state batteries is the ability to build off of the improvements made in other types of batteries. Toyota and Volkswagen, for example, are examinating solid-state batteries to power their electric cars. For example, at the end of July 2020, Toyota announced the development of a working prototype of solid-state batteries that are succeeding in running concept vehicles. A sulfur-based electrolyte allows charging from zero to full in less than 15 minutes.
Similar to lithium-ion batteries but with greater safety and lower cost. The research is still in its early stages, recently the cyclability issue was solved by using a graphite cathode. Aluminum-ion batteries offer significantly shortened charging time and the ability to bend. Still, the aluminum batteries so far are only half as energy-dense as lithium-ion. In general, aluminum is a significantly better charge carrier than lithium since every ion 'compensates' for several electrons. This provides greater potential with significantly less harm to the environment. Furthermore, aluminum batteries can be seen as easier to recycle because of the existing recycling entities.
These offer theoretically 5 times greater energy density and a lower cost than lithium-ion batteries. The major disadvantage is their low cyclability, caused by development and reactions with the electrolyte. Lithium-sulfur batteries, with solar panels, powered the legendary 3-day flight of the Zephyr-6 aerial vehicle. British OXIS Energy patented lithium-sulfur technology and claims that its solutions will be ready for use in aircraft within five years. Also, in 2015 NASA showed its interest in this technology and invested in solid-state Li/S batteries to power space exploration.
These are built of a pure-metal anode and an ambient air cathode. Usually, the cathode typically is responsible for most of the weight in a battery, so having one of air becomes a major advantage. Many metals can be used for battery production, for example, lithium, sodium, potassium, zinc, magnesium, calcium, aluminum, iron, silicon, and more, but lithium, aluminum, zinc, sodium settle as the pioneers. Light, compact power sources with a high energy density with two major barriers - corrosion and lack of being rechargeable.
The cost of batteries for EVs is falling notably. Industry reports show that sales-weighted battery pack prices dropped on average up to 85% over the last 10 years, and in most countries, battery-electric cars are already in the 50-70 kWh range. Therefore, research and development on batteries led to the significant growth of interest in BEVs purchase.
Significant research and development are continuously being made on battery technology to improve performance while assuring that batteries are lightweight, compact, and affordable. In November 2020, the German Fraunhofer Institutes in cooperation with The Netherlands Organization (TNO) announced the development of a battery technology that enables much greater range and much shorter charging time . This new technology called ‘Spatial Atom Layer Deposition’ (SALD) should provide electric cars with a range of well over 1000 kilometers. Behind the super battery, the breakthrough is the patented process of ‘spatial deposition of the atomic layer’. With this process, ultra-thin coatings, so-called atomic coatings, can be applied on an industrial scale. The resulting SALD batteries provide three times as much range as today's battery cells with similarly large installation space. The SALD batteries initially represent a further development of today's lithium-ion technology. The nano-coating creates a so-called ‘Artificial Solid Electrolyte Interphase’ (A-SEI), which is said to have a significantly better performance compared to previous SEI.
Expansion is so advanced that already a company promoting mass industrial production has been established - SALD BV based in Eindhoven, the Netherlands. SALD BV claims that these batteries can be charged five times faster, which means an electric car can be recharged to about 80 percent in ten minutes and fully charged in twenty minutes (having the range of +/- 1000 km). To confirm the relevance and proximity of this technology in the commercial world, the leaders of SALD BV say that the first cars will be equipped with new batteries from 2022. Negotiations are already in progress with several car manufacturers.
Besides being suitable for electric cars, this technology is also applicable to smartphones, smartwatches, and other battery-powered devices. SALD batteries can be used in smartphones that require charging only once a week.
Battery recycling and repurpose
Above all, the production and disposal of efficient batteries must be based on a sustainable policy. E-mobility, as a broad concept, represents a greener and more efficient way to commute. At every stage of the process, aspects aimed at protecting the environment and improving its quality must be implemented. The development of efficient batteries is necessary for the smooth transport flow, but both manufacturing and recycling must be carried out with environmental safety taken into account and near-to-zero CO2 emission.
According to the paper, Current Li-Ion Battery Technologies in Electric Vehicles and Opportunities for Advancements  what could be even more promising than recycling is the repurposing of the existing batteries from EVs. The batteries are intended for reuse when their charging capacity drops below 80% rated capacity. Tested and re-built batteries can be used to supplement solar, wind, and other areas of dense grid usage. With these second-life batteries, the generation capability can be augmented providing load shaping during limited production periods. This will require BMS (Building Management System) systems for monitoring since batteries will have reduced capacity. Repurposing the EV batteries was also confirmed in an MIT study, showing that used-battery banks could provide shorter-term storage - covering day-to-night needs.
In January 2021 EMR Metals Recycling is going to lead a project seeking to create a new circular end-of-life supply chain for EV batteries. This initiative is supported by a grant from the U.K.’s Advanced Propulsion Centre (APC). The project Recovas will run for 3 years aiming to create a standardized and safe route for recycling and repurposing lithium-ion car batteries at a scale that can cope with the expected sales of electric vehicles in the U.K. Partnering with Bentley Motors, BMW, Jaguar Land Rover, the University of Warwick, the Health and Safety Executive, the U.K. Battery Industrialisation Centre, Autocraft Solutions Group, Connected Energy, which repurposes electric car batteries; and uRecycle, which will develop the U.K.’s first commercial-scale recycling facility for automotive battery packs. The batteries will receive a second life in stationary energy storage applications. The development of the new supply chain will help all partners to segregate batteries when they reach approved end-of-life vehicle treatment facilities across the UK for remanufacturing, reuse, or, when it’s not possible, recycling. The project Recovas is supported by a 49 million-pound governmental aid in technologies that will help the automotive industry “go green.” The project is also expected to create a new economic activity for the UK and create more than 550 green jobs within the consortium segments and their supply chain.
Furthermore, the Finnish company Fortum developed a solution with the use of a hydrometallurgical recycling process covering over 80% of lithium-ion battery materials. The industrial-scale, low-CO2 process allows obtaining lithium, cobalt, manganese, and nickel from the battery for reuse in producing new batteries. Originally the process was developed by another Finish company - CrisolteQ - acquired by Fortum in January 2020. In mid-November 2020 the company announced a breakthrough in recycling lithium from rechargeable batteries. The process was designed to reduce the environmental impact of recycling lithium, but so far the company did not provide any details.
Across the globe, there are over 80 companies working on various green solutions to recycle or repurpose EV batteries.
At the end of November 2020, European Commission Vice President Maros Sefcovic said that the EU could manufacture enough batteries by 2025 to power its fast-growing fleet of electric vehicles without relying on imported cells. Now, China delivers approximately 80% of the world’s lithium-ion cells, but Europe’s capacity is set to expand fast. Europe has 15 large-scale battery cell factories under its foundation, including Swedish company Northvolt’s plants in Sweden and Germany, Chinese battery maker CATL’s German department, and South Korean firm SK Innovation’s second plant in Hungary. By 2025 planned facilities across Europe are expected to produce enough cells to power at least 6 million electric vehicles. With an estimated 13 million low-emission vehicles on roads in Union by 2025, further investments are necessary to support the Commission’s plan of green transition in order to achieve carbon neutrality goals by 2050. In December 2020 standards for the carbon footprint of batteries in the EU will be presented.
Charging infrastructure demand
The global EV success is blocked by some concerns. Since EV prices steadily decline and battery range is constantly being improved with some promising results, the third usually listed barrier when it comes to an EV purchase - charging infrastructure - is becoming a primary barrier.
Conducted estimates assuming EV adoption, total miles driven per year, and the average kilowatt-hours required per km with battery efficiency of 20 kWh/ 100 km indicate six times more energy demand by 2025 and twenty times more by 2030 than what we have today in the EU. The advantage of electric cars is that they can be charged in many locations and in various ways. This covers plug-in charging at home, at workplaces, in public, and on highways while long-distance driving. Apart from plug-ins, we also have other promising technologies such as inductive charging while driving, which were not included in the presented analysis.
Most of the driving refers to short work-home distances, however, 3-6 percent of driving involves long-distance (more than 150 km). With a fully charged EV leaving home, most of today’s electric vehicles cannot make the round-trip without recharging. This makes the space for long-distance and super-fast chargers. The charging funnel starts at home, where overnight charging remains the most preferred option. Residential electricity in general is cheaper than commercial or industrial electricity, and most EV charging happens when electricity prices are lower. In the EU where EVs go mainstream charging is going to shift to the public, covering charging infrastructure +/- 60% by 2030. It’s dictated by larger switching to EVs in bigger cities. More and more households with no home-charging options will be more likely to buy an EV from 2020 onward. The architectural limitations of highly dense urban cities, which have larger proportions of on-street and large-commercial-garage parking, are the agitators for extended public-charging options. Moreover, the value of public charging will become significantly bigger by 2030, increasing the demand based on market needs.
Charger’s capacity defines how fast an EV can be charged. Alternate-current (AC level 1 and 2) chargers are widely applicable in houses and workplaces because of long time remaining parked vehicles. By contrast, direct-current charging (DC or level 3) also known as fast-charging is applicable where time matters - public charging and highways. AC charging is expected to remain dominant by 2030 covering up to 70% of the energy consumed. The persisting 30% should be covered by fast-charging stations, which might be highly desirable due to the convenience of use.
Even if fast-charging stations remain quantitatively in the general minority, easy access is a key factor in building efficient, user-focused infrastructure. With a rapidly growing demand for investment, we have a common ground - require a change in consumer habits. Even with rapid-charging technology (50kW+), charge time takes 20 to 30 minutes to reach 80% of battery capacity. The well-known benchmark - refueling petrol or diesel experience - is still out of reach. Providing consumers the multitasking opportunity for rapid EV charging, whether combined with retail sites or bespoke charging 'lounges', together with a shift from a top-up (as opposed to refuel) mentality will be necessary to aid mass adoption.
Standards and protocols in EV Charging Industry
The technology in the EV charging industry is growing fast, hence the need for an accessible EV charging network. Demand will continue to increase, so to expand the network and keep a market-leading position Charge Point Operators and eMobility Service Providers need to keep an open mind. What the industry witnesses now is the standardization of chargers and the introduction of new protocols for interoperability. CPOs and eMSPs face challenges growing internationally, especially when dealing with different protocols, regulations, and uniting e-roaming capabilities into their networks. To provide an open network, which will be beneficial to the owners as well as users, introduction to open standards will be crucial . Here are the most commonly used standards among the industry:
OCPP - Open Charge Point Protocol
An application protocol for communication between charging stations and a central management system. It is available for free, international, open-source, vendor-independent standard.
Developed by the Open Charge Alliance (OCA) for the EV infrastructure market, and is recognized as the standard for charging infrastructure cooperating among charging equipment manufacturers, software and systems providers, charging network operators, and research organizations. The protocol provides flexibility for infrastructure operators to be EVSE-agnostic and allows ubiquitous access for EV drivers. Moreover, it optimizes the cost and minimizes the risk of infrastructure investments.
The protocol was developed in cooperation with numerous market players in the EV industry (charging station manufacturers, utilities, charge point operators, and back-office software providers).
The newest version, OCPP 2.0.1, has new, improved features for device management, transaction handling, security, smart charging functionalities, support for display and messaging and other additional enhancements inquired by the EV charging community.
The OCPP 2.0.1 also offers the option to support plug and charge for electric vehicles supporting the ISO 15118 protocol.
OCPI - Open Charge Point Interface
Designed for information exchange about charge points between CPOs and eMSPs to facilitate scalable and automated EV roaming. OCPI provides session information including location information, sends remote commands (e.g. reservation commands), provides charge detail records (CDRs) for billing purposes, authorizes charging sessions by exchanging tokens.
OpenADR - Open Automated Demand Response
An open and secured foundation for interoperable information exchange to facilitate automated demand response. Usually is used to send information and signals between distribution system operators (DSOs), utilities and energy management and control systems to balance energy demand during peak times.
OpenADR 2.0 supports standardization of demand response (DR) and distributed energy resources (DER) communications and automated DR/DER processes. Also, it interprets customer energy management and eliminates stranded assets.
OSCP - Open Smart Charging Protocol
An open protocol for communications between a charge point management system and an energy management system of a site owner or a DSO system.
OSCP can be used for communicating a real-time prediction of the local electricity grid capacity to the charge point operator. This standard enables the capacity-based smart charging of EVs.
OCHP - Open Clearing House Protocol
An open-source protocol that enables the communication, in a simple and uniform way, between a charging management system and a clearinghouse system.
OCHP enables unlimited electric vehicle charging across charging station networks (e-Roaming). By applying OCHP, eMSPs can connect to EV charging operators and providers in order to grant access to their network.
OICP - Open InterCharge Protocol
Developed by Hubject , is an implemented communication standard between eMSP and CPO systems via the Hubject platform.
The information exchange is based on contractual relationships between eMSPs and CPOs to Hubject, enabling them to offer reliable roaming to electric car drivers.
eMIP - eMobility Interoperation Protocol
Provided by French company GIREVE , facilitates e-roaming of charging services by providing a charge authorization and a data clearinghouse API and access to a comprehensive charging point database.
An international standard for bi-directional digital communications between electric vehicles and the charging station. ISO15118 defines a vehicle-to-grid (V2G) communication interface for bi-directional charging/discharging of EVs.
ISO15118 is a key enabler of the Plug&Charge capability, allowing EV drivers to insert the charger plug into the car, charge, and drive off when ready. This process is authorized by a digital certificate located in the vehicle, letting it communicate with the charging point management system (CPMS). This allows a seamless end-to-end charging process, which involves automatic authentication and billing, and avoids the need to use an RFID card, an app, or to remember PIN numbers.
Similar to mobile phone roaming, e-roaming for EV charging works, allowing drivers to use charging stations being operated by different networks with a single account, nationwide and globally.
It is possible by agreements between service providers via their EV charging management platform. This peculiarity gives drivers the opportunity to locate, book, and use a charging point wherever and whenever they need it.
E-roaming relieves fears of autonomy and range for EV drivers, which remain a major concern stopping them from switching to EVs. Besides, e-roaming enhances the overall user experience for EV drivers by securing more compatible service levels and easier billing management.
Despite the great advantages, e-roaming agreements are still rare within the EV industry and dependable on charging operators’ willingness to sign cooperation agreements. However, industry associations and authorities are frequently inviting EV charging companies to contract partnerships that will improve the user experience and ultimately support faster adoption of EVs. For example, in the UK the Renewable Energy Association calls for joint action of different charging networks, making it now a top priority.
Having in mind end-user focus, and business benefits e-roaming is a key to scaling up. In the long run, being able to offer a single interface across multiple countries will make business pop out from the crowd increasing customers, thanks to an enriched user experience.
By opening the network to other providers, it is possible to attract new customers to your charging stations. The increased use of chargers will monetize your network quicker, with a faster return on investment. This is a win-win scenario, where in association with a software provider it will be easy to implement. When engaging with a software partner, both when you are creating your network or migrating to a new platform, e-roaming features should be assured as a part of the contract. In the long run, the sustainable EV charging network will become a combination across various networks.
E-mobility in numbers and 2020 reality
EV sales in Europe
In July 2020 electric car sales (in this case Hybrid, Plug-in Hybrid, and full battery EVs) continued growth touching 18% of the total European passenger car market. To compare in July 2018 all-electric car sales across Europe amounted to 5.7% in all cars’ sale share and in July 2019 - 7.5%. Provided data is based on EV registrations in Europe. YoY volume up reached 131%, which quantitatively gives us 230,700 registered EVs. What is also worth noticing 9% of July 2020 sales were plug-in EVs, the other half were hybrids.
Following the data provided by European Alternative Fuels Observatory, so far in the first half of 2020 unarguable European EV leader is Germany, with 74,656 Battery Electric Vehicles and 85,941 Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles new registrations.
Growing popularity in plug-in EVs is dictated by broad development among manufacturers. The offer extended from 28 different models available to 38 in 2020 in Europe. Felipe Munoz, the global analyst at JATO Dynamics, stated: “The rise in demand for EVs is strongly related to a wider offer that is finally including more affordable choices. The higher competition amongst brands is also pushing down prices.”
The latest updates strengthen Germany's leading position when it comes to new EV registrations. September 2020 was noted as another record month with a little over 41,000 new plug-in vehicles purchased, reaching a record 16% EVs in market share (8% fully electric vehicles/BEV). Noting a YoY 10% (4.8% BEV share), thereby the German market has officially reached double digits, also known as The Disruption Zone.
Boosting EV sales in Germany are dictated by the ambitious and very serious Government aims to have up to 10 million EVs and 1 million charging stations on German roads by 2030. Current and prospective drivers can possess a wide range of grants, tax incentives, and other benefits when purchasing an EV or charger in Germany.
E-development is supported by authorities
Driven by technology, the search for improvement and new lifestyle models yet another opportunity appeared on the horizon. Accelerated by global warming, and as a consequence, strongly supported by the authorities, green development quickly moved from the option to the priority. Taking serious steps in order to provide sustainable development, most of these authorities declared carbon neutrality by 2050: Austria, California (other US cities and states are pursuing net-zero goals, including New York City and Hawaii), Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Denmark, European Union, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Japan, Marshall Islands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Singapore, Slovakia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and Uruguay.
A significant reduction of CO2 emissions was also declared by China, and Bhutan aiming for carbon neutrality as it develops.
From a community perspective, 2050 is also important. According to The UNO’s World Urbanization Prospects 2014 report, almost 70 percent of the world’s population will live in metropolitan regions by 2050. This means well-developed infrastructure demand and Smart City solutions already applied.
German government multi-level support
As part of a 130 billion economic stimulus package following the Corona crisis, the German government doubled incentives to buyers of battery-electric vehicles until the end of 2021 year. Nevertheless, these grants do not apply to internal-combustion-engine vehicles. Buyers of fully electric cars (and plug-in hybrids) with a netlist price no higher than €40,000 will be qualified for a grant of €9,000 (plug-in hybrids 4,500 euros)- one-third of which will be funded by the carmakers. Estimates the financial requirement is expected to be at 2.2 billion euros.
As a part of governmental corporate support, there is also a shift in company car taxation: the gross purchase price limit for the 0.25 percent taxation of company cars powered purely by electricity will be raised from 40,000 to 60,000 euros. This means more models will be qualified for lower taxation.
A long-term incentive is an abolishment of the vehicle tax for purely electric cars by the end of 2030 (so far this measure has only been limited until 2025). For all other vehicles, CO2 emissions are to be used as the primary basis of evaluation for the motor vehicle tax from 2021 and will be raised gradually from the value of 95 grams per kilometer. The precise regulation is still pending.
Manufacturers will also be supported by the authorities, with 1 billion euros founds in 2020 and 2021 as a part of a bonus program supporting research and development for transformation-relevant innovations.
Yet another significant factor - well-developed, open, and accessible charging infrastructure, as well as battery cell production, will be supported by an additional 2.5 billion euros. In June the federal government planned a mentioned 2.5 billion euros distribution to invest 500 million euros in the founding of private charging points. Another 1.5 billion euros will be utilized to set up a battery cell production facility, and the remaining 500 million euros will be handled for research and development. The Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure has launched a stimulus program to boost the roll-out of public charging stations. Subsidies cover:
- Up to €3,000 for purchasing charging stations of up to 22 kW.
- Up to €12,000 for purchasing DC chargers up to 100 kW.
- Up to €30,000 for purchasing DC chargers above 100 kW.
- Up to €5,000 for low voltage and up to €50,000 for medium voltage grid connections
And some of the tax benefits:
- Private and company car owners of PEVs charging the vehicles in their employer premises are excluded from declaring this as a cash benefit in their income tax return.
- Company car owners charging their EVs at home can benefit from a tax reduction.
- Employers offering free EVs or bike charging will not be taxed for this service until 2030.
Locally, to boost the development of the charging network Nordrhein-Westfalen offers 50% (max. €1,000) of acquiring and launching costs of private EV charger via the Sofortprogramm Elektromobilität, Munich covers 40% of total net costs of the purchase price, installation, and planning (max. €3.000 per charging point of up to 22kW capacity; max. €10.000 per fast charging point with capacity over 22kW). Hannover gives a €500 incentive for purchasing and installing a smart charging station and Limburg €300 incentive per changing point.
Private sector support
The initiatives are also supported by private sector energy companies. N‑ERGIE offers a €250 incentive for purchasing and installing a wall box charger in Nürnberg and switching to the companies eco-energy tariff. Stadtwerke Marburg provides a €400 incentive for purchasing and installing a wall box charger; an extra 100€ incentive is given when producing its own renewable energy. Stadtwerke Schwedt offers a €200 incentive for purchasing and installing a wall box charger in Schwedt and switching to its eco-energy tariff. Wuppertaler Stadtwerke offers a €150 incentive for purchasing and installing a fast charger in Wuppertal and switching to an eco-energy tariff. The list goes on.
The public transport sector does not remain deserted in this matter. As a part of a high-level mobility concept and sustainable development private and municipal operators will receive a total of 1.2 billion euros through a fleet modernization program to switch to alternative drive systems. Electric buses and their charging infrastructure funds will be increased for a limited period until the end of 2021. Apart from the top-down regulations, federal states are allowed to grant subsidies to public transport providers to compensate for the drop in ticket profits. This year, also the regionalization funds will be risen by 2.5 billion euros on a one-off basis - so that public transport operators can compensate for declines resulting from the lack of passenger income.
EV incentives in Europe
Germany can be set as an example in fast and multi-level support for the transition to green energy, offering the most generous EV incentives in Europe. This country takes the most serious steps aiming for ambitious goals of having 10 million EVs and 1 million charging stations by 2030. Among other European countries, 12 (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Spain, Sweden, The Netherlands, United Kingdom) offer incentives for buyers for the green transition when it comes to EVs and charging infrastructure, but most offer e.g. tax reduction or exemption for buyers and EV owners.
Italy for example ratified in May 2019, an ‘Eco-Bonus’ program, with €60 million in 2019 and €70 million in 2020 and 2021 for subsidies to electric or very low-emission hybrid vehicles and EV charging infrastructure. The current incentives are increased by 50% from August - December 2020, as a part of a program to stimulate economic recovery after the COVID-19 lockdown.
Germany is viewed as a country with the most ambitious e-mobility program in a relatively short time, but Norway remains the leader in the EV race within Europe due to longstanding commitment since 1990. Originally the plan assumed 100 000 EVs on the roads by 2020, but the objective was achieved in 2018. What is worth noticing Norway’s incentives program does not include many subsidies for EVs and EV chargers, but alternatively gives tax cuts and large investment in publicly governed EV charging infrastructure. Tax benefits include no purchase tax and no VAT on the purchase of electric vehicles, 75-90% tax cut for yearly road tax for both fully-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids, 50% discount on company car tax for both fully-electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids, exemption from acquisition tax and exemption from the country’s 25% value-added tax. Locally, according to the letter of the law, counties and municipalities cannot charge EV owners more than 50% of the price for fossil fuel cars on ferries, public parking, and toll roads.
Norway has focused on investing in public charging infrastructure, having now more than 10 000 publicly available charging points. Norway’s EV charging program is focused on public funding for fast charging stations every 50 km on main roads. What is more, from 2017 certain local service stations have begun to replace petrol pumps with EV chargers, boosting the local charging infrastructure available to EV owners.
The Netherlands is identified as a forward-thinker with its plans to EV policy and an enormous volume of EV chargers. As a matter of fact, the Kingdom of the Netherlands has the highest ratio of public charging points and electric vehicles per 100 km on the planet. In September 2020 in total, nearly 60 thousand charging points were to be found for (semi-) public use. This rapid growth of charging stations is due to the country’s policy - citizens in most regions cannot receive any incentives, instead can request a free installation of a public charging point near their place of habitation or work. Once installed, access to the charger is free and the only payment is for the energy used to charge the car. Moreover, the incentive policies occur so successfully that electric car ownership now costs are equal to diesel or gasoline car ownership. What is more, the government plans from 2030, only emission-free vehicles to be allowed as newly registered.
France for instance has an ambitious plan to produce 1 million EVs annually by 2025. As a part of an 8 billion euros rescue package to help the auto industry recover from the coronavirus crisis, incentives for new electric vehicles were increased. There are 30 000 public charge points and two main EV incentives available in France: the Ecological Bonus and the Conversion Bonus. With that package, residents can save up to €19,000 (depending on the region) when purchasing an EV.
The UK developed a comprehensive strategy for electrification with an Office for Low Emission Vehicles (OLEV) and the Road to Zero strategy. Initially, OLEV and other government departments were aiming to end the sale of fossil-powered vehicles by 2040. Recently, it was announced that the sales of these vehicles will be banned by 2030. Road to Zero strategy has a £290 million budget dedicated to supporting the use of low-emission vehicles. In 2019 the UK government announced that an additional £500 million will be invested over the coming years in ‘green technologies for a cleaner and healthier future’. This includes a new £400 million Charging Infrastructure Investment fund, which is being found as a crucial part of greener development. Managed and invested on a commercial basis by private sector partners, who are to pay half the fund (£200 million). The first £70 million grant, provided by the UK government and the auto enterprise Masdar, is to create 3,000 new rapid charge points across the UK by 2024. Taxation benefits include purely electric vehicles costing less than £40,000 exemption from the annual road tax for individual owners and newly purchased EVs by businesses can be written down 100% of the purchase price against the corporation tax liability if the vehicle emits no more than 50g/km CO2, (paying just 1% CCT in 2021, and 2% in 2022). The UK government also plans special green number plates for EVs, so they can benefit more easily from local incentives, such as free parking, using bus lanes, and accessing areas excluded for fossil-powered cars. Locally, the Scottish Government offers an interest-free loan to help drivers switching to an EV or hybrid. Scotland offers up to £35,000 to cover the cost of a new electric/hybrid car, repaid over a period of 6 years.
To solve the charging infrastructure concerns some local authorities are provided with the On-street Residential Chargepoint Scheme. This is the answer to urban areas, where off-street parking is unavailable to many residents. Local officials can get a grant to part-fund (75%) on-street electric vehicle charge point infrastructure in residential areas. OLEV will invest up to £6,500 per charge point installation.
Various countries adopt different development scenarios and support the transition towards e-mobility. Thus, the way for solution providers in the e-mobility market is wide open. The green light from local governments for development in this field enables quick and relatively easy market penetration. Appropriate solutions modeling, while maintaining basic design principles, now creates space for testing different solutions and scaling the best one. Over the next 5-10 years, we shall be witnessing significant changes regarding the e-mobility market. Solutions supported by well-suited technology and domain knowledge will decide whether 'to be or not to be' the entire venture. Yet another revolution is taking place right in front of us.
While the world remains to battle the COVID-19 pandemic, and industries are in a slowdown, in March, car sales in Germany dropped by 37.7% nevertheless the plug-in market grew by 33.3%. The expansion of the EV market during the pandemic is a global trend, and according to the Wall Street Journal article, after observing the benefits to air quality following worldwide lockdown measures buyers are more likely to gain sustainable means. With the Climate Plan released at the end of 2019, Ferdinand Dudenhoeffer, director of Center for Automotive Research, assessed 5 million pure electric and hybrid EV registrations by 2030 as a reasonable goal. With the boosting growth in EV markets and the new funds, Germany might reach its goals and become a role model in building an extensive eMobility ecosystem. Will other countries follow or develop yet another path for e-mobility expansion, we can expect that time will soon tell.
Undoubtedly, the multi-level engagement of both the public and private sector with scientific and technological support helps in a rapid transition to e-mobility. Great hopes are already set in some breakthrough discoveries, such as SALD batteries and open public charging stations available to all consumers. Electric car subsidies and tax exemptions, as well as improved public education on clean air, global protection, and the natural environment, are yielding tangible results. Without research, education, and government support, as well as technology development, rapid awareness-raising and success in better-performing markets would not be possible. We are making progress in order to reduce emissions across the EU. Charging infrastructure is growing rapidly but still is beyond what needed to reach the 2030 target, which is a 60% carbon reduction. We still have a lot of work ahead of us, but collectively we will be able to achieve 2050 goals and create a diverse e-mobility market.
Solidstudio is a software company, providing e-mobility solutions. We are a member of EVRoaming Foundation. With proven experience in adapting open standards and custom APIs, we partner companies in the process of integration between various components and several partners to unlock e-mobility possibilities. We developed solutions on both sides - eMobility Service Providers and Charge Point Operators. Knowing the challenges that might be faced, we can help to smoothly accustom at any stage of development in order to unlock business processes. Knowing the value of time, we have developed tailor-made modules that can boost the adaptation process. Besides, we offer our extensive knowledge and experience in the area of e-mobility. With the business approach in mind, market recognition, and technical knowledge we can tailor solutions that will run smoothly. With some recent breakthroughs, we decided to gather crucial figures, facts, and latest discoveries, as well as some theoretical knowledge to share with the industry the current necessary steps taken in the last months. Despite global crises, the e-mobility industry globally is doing well and we are willing to support the green transition with our domain knowledge and vast, tech experience.
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