E-MobilityOpen Standards

In need of EV charging infrastructure

29 OCTOBER 2020 • 5 MIN READ

Piotr Majcher



in need of ev charging infrascructure header


It is estimated that by 2030, the number of EVs on the roads globally would become dominant. EVs sales grow dynamically, from 450,000 electric cars sold in 2015 to 2.1M in 2019. With the fast development of larger capacity batteries, its prices fall, and energy density, charging infrastructures need to keep up with a demanding rapid expansion. BloombergNEF estimates that in 20 years there will be 54M EVs on the roads globally. Of course, there are markets that witness faster EV coverage and adaptation (e.g. Europe with Norway leading the way here, and China) but it is predicted that by 2040 EVs in new car sales will be 58% worldwide.

EV charging infrastructure

Since we live in the user-centered era, cutting the edge charging network seems to be the next big challenge to quickly adapt, boost, and win the eMobility ecosystem. Among potential EV consumers, a poorly developed charging network is listed as the main barrier when buying an electric car. However, the transition to clean energy is a must. With a governmentally declared reduction of carbon emissions, accessible charging points development gets a fast track. Different approaches are tested and developed in diverse markets. Here you can find the gathered leading charging options

What are the available charging options so far?

Bidirectional Chargers
Two-way charging technology. When EV is charged, AC (Alternating Current) from the grid is converted to DC (Direct Current) power. Possible to be implemented by the EV’s owner or charger’s converter. What is more, this technology allows the energy stored in batteries to powerhouse/external load (V2H) or send it back to the grid (V2G)

Wireless charging
Nothing new here, but some may not know that EVs wireless charging is possible. The vehicle’s battery can be empowered wirelessly by parking the car on a spot with a charger on the ground. Just like wireless phone chargers. Although, the amount of exchanged energy in these wireless systems notably outpaces a wireless cell phone charger, seems like a great challenge for startups developing them. These innovations must be 100% safe, certified solutions. One of the examples of a park & charge solution is Canadian startup ELIX.

High-speed chargers
A fully charged car in 20-60 minutes is possible, although the ultimate goal is to fully charge a vehicle in less than 10 minutes. Just like gasoline at the petrol station. For example, GBatteries is working on advanced super-fast charging technology without the influence of battery life. The pioneers like Tesla, ABB, ChargePoint, EVbox, and other OEMs and networks offer fast-charging stations. Among other obstacles associated with handling the huge power demanded, if not done correctly, fast charging can lead to faster battery degradation.

Portable charging units
Similarly, just like power banks for mobile phones, startups are building portable charging systems for EVs. For example, SparkCharge offers stackable batteries that can deliver up to 60-75 miles per full stack and work together to deliver the exact amount of range needed.

Since the most comfortable ways of charging EV is still overnight, for those who don’t have a garage or access to any charging station nearby, British startup ZUMO offers a solution for those who own or want to own an EV but lack a driveway. They pick up the car, bring it to a charging station, and bring it back to the owner the following morning, fully charged and ready to go solving the issue of charging in big cities.

Dynamic wireless charging
With the technology that uses copper coils embedded under roads and connected to the electricity grid, along with receivers installed under vehicles the dynamic charging is being in deployment in Sweden for E-bus with a Super- Capacitor battery and a heavy Duty E-Truck with a Li-Ion battery. Yet another EV charging resolution proposed by Electreon. Similar projects also take place in Germany and Israel.

Charging network under the cables

With the most common charging option on the market comes three main types of EV charging: rapid, fast, and slow. These represent the power outputs, and hence charging speeds, available to charge an EV. Each charging device type has an associated set of connectors that are designed for low- or high-power use, and for either AC or DC charging.

Rapid or super-fast chargers enable to recharge an EV up to 80% in 20 min to 1 hour, depending on the battery capacity. With 50 kW DC charging is possible on one of two connector types using either the CHAdeMO or CCS charging standards, 43 kW AC charging on one connector - Type 2 standard, 100+ kW DC ultra-rapid charging is possible on one of two connector types: CCS or CHAdeMO. All rapid units have tethered cables.

The majority of fast chargers provide AC charging. A 7 kW charger will recharge a compatible EV with a 40 kWh battery in 4-6 hours, and a 22 kW charger in 1-2 hours. Fast chargers are often placed at car parks, supermarkets, or recreation centers, where you are likely to be parked for an hour or more. Fast chargers include: 7kW fast charging on one of three connector types, 22kW fast charging on one of three connector types, 11kW fast charging on Tesla Destination network. Units are either untethered or have tethered cables. Fast charge is the most common public charge point standard, and most plug-in car owners will have a cable with a Type 2 connector charger-side.

Slow chargers are mostly used at home because overnight charging takes from 6 up to 12 hours. There are 3 kW – 6 kW slow charging units on one of four connector types either untethered or have tethered cables, meaning that a cable is required to connect the EV with the charge point.

Open charging access

Most EVs are equipped with two cables for slow and fast AC charging; one with a three-pin plug and the other with a Type 2 connector charger-side. Both are fitted with a compatible connector for the car’s inlet port. These cables allow an EV's owner to connect to most untethered charge points, while the use of tethered units requires using the cable with the correct connector type for the vehicle. With the growing EV market and demand for proper, open, and accessible charging points in public spaces manufacturers, eMobility Service Providers, and Charge Point Operators will have to meet halfway in order to build one, effective, and benefiting for each participant, standardized eMarket. Before new forms of EV charging become an undisturbed daily routine open standards provide great value in creating an extensive charging network.